Hryðjuverkamál

Hryðjuverk eru alvarleg ógn við alþjóðlegt öryggi sem allar þjóðir þurfa að vinna gegn, Ísland þar á meðal. Þetta samstarf fer fram á ýmsum vettvangi, sjá nánar að neðan.

Gögn, stofnanir og samstarf

Atlantshafsbandalagið NATO

Evrópuráðið CoE

Evrópusambandið EU (ESB) / Evrópska efnahagssvæðið EEA (EES)

 Peningaþvættisstofnunin FATF (Fjármálaaðgerðahópurinn) 

Sameinuðu þjóðirnar UN (SÞ)

Samningar

Öryggis- og samvinnustofnun Evrópu OSCE (ÖSE)

Tenglar

CTC     |     CoE     |      FATF     |     NATO    |     OSCE     |      

FATF - Peningaþvættisstofnunin

Fjármálaaðgerðahópurinn

FATF (Peningaþvættisstofnunin eða Fjármálaaðgerðahópurinn, e. Financial Action Task Force) er alþjóðastofnun sem var komið á fót 1989. Upphaflega stóðu 15 ríki að þessu milliríkjasamstarfi en eru nú orðin 34. Ísland gerðist aðili 1992. Stofnunin er staðsett í París. Hlutverk hennar er þríþætt:

  • Vinna gegn peningaþvætti (frá 1989)
  • Vinna gegn fjármögnun hryðjuverka (frá 2001)
  • Vinna gegn fjármögnun útbreiðslu gereyðingarvopna (frá 2007, í tengslum við framkvæmd ályktana öryggisráðs SÞ)

Í október 2006 kom út 3. FATF-skýrslan um framkvæmd Íslands á skuldbindingum sínum. Þar koma fram margar ábendingar um framkvæmd alþjóðaskuldbindinga, m.a. varðandi ályktanir öryggisráðsins.

Stýrihópur gegn peningaþvætti

Peningaþvættismál heyra undir innanríkisráðuneytið sem hefur samstarf um þau mál við önnur ráðuneyti og stofnanir. Innanríkisráðuneytið skipaði í maí 2015 stýrihóp sem er stjórnvöldum til ráðgjafar um aðgerðir gegn peningaþvætti og fjármögnun hryðjuverka. Hlutverk hópsins er þríþætt:

  • Fara yfir og bæta úr útistandandi athugasemdum FATF í þeim tilgangi að ljúka eftirfylgni ferli þriðju úttektar sem Ísland hefur verið í síðan 2006
  • Vera stjórnvöldum til ráðgjafar í afstöðu til mála hjá FATF
  • Undirbúa fjórðu úttekt hjá FATF sem fyrirhuguð er sumarið 2017

Stýrihópurinn er þannig skipaður: Hildur Dungal, lögfræðingur og jafnframt formaður tilnefnd af innanríkisráðherra, Áslaug Jósepsdóttir, lögfræðingur, tilnefnd af Seðlabanka Íslands, Grímur Grímsson og Björn Þorvaldsson, starfsmenn peningaþvættisskrifstofu, tilnefndir af héraðssaksóknara, Helga Rún Hafliðadóttir, lögfræðingur, tilnefnd af Skattrannsóknarstjóra, Gísli Örn Kjartansson, lögfræðingur, tilnefndur af Fjármálaeftirlitinu, Erna Hjaltested, sérfræðingur, tilnefnd af fjármála- og efnahagsráðuneytinu, Pétur Thorsteinsson, lögfræðingur, tilnefndur af utanríkisráðuneytinu.

Peningaþvættisskrifstofa

Peningaþvættisskrifstofa héraðssaksóknara (e. Financial Intelligence Unit - FIU) annast móttöku tilkynninga á grundvelli laga um aðgerðir gegn peningaþvætti og fjármögnun hryðjuverka. Þar eru upplýsingar greindar og miðlað til hlutaðeigandi yfirvalda til frekari meðferðar, s.s. rannsóknar og saksóknar.

Gögn

Löggjöf

  • Lög (frá 20. janúar 2016) um breytingu á lögum um aðgerðir gegn peningaþvætti og fjármögnun hryðjuverka, nr. 64/2006, með síðari breytingum (áreiðanleikakannanir, undanþága frá áreiðanleikakönnun, eftirlit o.fl.)
  • Lög um breytingu á lögum sem varða alþjóðleg öryggismál o.fl. nr. 81/2015 (reglum breytt um birtingar nafna hryðjuverkamanna af hálfu öryggisráðs SÞ og frystingu fjármuna)
  • Lög um breytingu á lögum um meðferð sakamála og lögreglulögum (skipan ákæruvalds, rannsókn efnahagsbrotamála o.fl.) nr. 47/2015 (peningaþvættisskrifstofa vistuð hjá nýju embætti héraðssaksóknara).

Tenglar

FATF  |  FME (Fjármálaeftirlitið)  |  FIU (Peningaþvættisskrifstofa)

 

Samningar og samstarf um hryðjuverkamál og skyld mál

Updated: 24.11.2015

ICELAND

Participation in International Conventions and Co-operation against Terrorism

Legend: > = Party, * = not yet in force, E = Entry into force (date), R = Ratification (date), A = Accession, S = Signature (date), U = Unsigned

Conventions and Protocols (41) – Ratified (24) – Not ratified (17)

(1) Universal Anti-Terrorism Conventions and Protocols (19)  

>1963 (Tokyo) Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (ICAO) E 14.6.1970 (see also 2014 Protocol)

>1970 (Hague) Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (ICAO) A 29.6.1973 (see also 2010 Protocol).

>1971 (Montreal) Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (ICAO) A 29.6.1973

>1973 (New York) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents (UN) R 2.8.1977

>1979 (New York) Convention against the Taking of Hostages (UN) A 6.7.1981

>1980 (Vienna and New York) Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (IAEA) E 18.7.2002 (see also 2005 Amendment)

>1988 (Montreal) Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the (1971 Montreal) Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (ICAO) E 8.6.1990

>1988 (Rome) Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA Convention) (IMO) E 26.8.2002 (see also 1988 and 2005 Protocols)

>1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (IMO) E 26.8.2002 (to the 1988 Rome Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation - SUA)

>1991 (Montreal) Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (ICAO) E 23.7.2002

>1997 (New York) International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (UN) R 15.4.2002

>1999 (New York) Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (UN) R 15.4.2002

2005 (New York) Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (UN) S 16.9.2005 (D, F, N, S)

2005 Protocol to the 1988 (Rome) Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (IMO) (N, S)

2005 Protocol to the (1988) Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (IMO) (N, S)

>2005 *Amendment to the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (IAEA) (D, F, N, S)

2010 (Beijing) *Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation (ICAO) U

2010 *Protocol Supplementary to the (1970 Hague) Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (ICAO) U

2014 *Protocol to Amend the (1963 Tokyo) Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (ICAO) U

(2) European Anti-Terrorism related Conventions and Protocols (18)  

>1957 European Convention on Extradition [ ETS No. 24] E 18.9.1984 (see also 1975, 1978, 2010 and 2012 Protocols)

>1959 European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters [ ETS No. 30] E 18.9.1984 (see also 1978 and 2001 Protocols)

>1972 European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters [ ETS No. 73] S 19.9.1989 (D, N, S)

>1975 Additional Protocol to the (1957) European Convention on Extradition [ ETS No. 86] E 18.9.1984

>1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism [ ETS No. 90] E 12.10.1980 (see also 2003 Protocol)

>1978 Additional Protocol to the (1959) European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters [ ETS No. 99] E 18.9.1984

>1978 Second Additional Protocol to the (1957) European Convention on Extradition [ ETS No. 98] E 18.9.1984

1983 European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes [ ETS No. 116] *(D, F, N, S)

>1990 Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime [ ETS No. 141] E 8.11.2001

2001 Second Additional Protocol to the (1959) European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters [ ETS No. 182] S 8.11.2001 (D, F, N, S)

>2001 Convention on Cybercrime [ ETS No. 185] E 1.5.2007 (see also 2003 Protocol)

2003 *Protocol amending the (1977) European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism [ ETS No. 190] S 15.5.2003 (D, F, N)

2003 Additional Protocol to the (2001) Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems [ ETS No. 189] S 9.10.2003 (D, F, N)

2005 Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism [ CETS No. 198] S 16.5.2005 (S)

2005 Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism [ CETS No. 196] S 16.5.2005 (D, F, N, S) (see also 2015 Protocol)

2010 Third Additional Protocol to the (1957) European Convention on Extradition [ CETS No. 209] U

2012 Fourth Additional Protocol to the (1957) European Convention on Extradition [ CETS No. 212] U

2015 Additional Protocol to the (2005) Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism [CETS No. 217] S 22.10.2015  

(3) Other Anti-Terrorism related Conventions and Protocols (4)  

International  

>2000 (New York) UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UN) R 13.5.2000

2001 Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the (2000 New York) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UN) S 15.11.2001 (D, F, N, S)  

Nordic  

>2002 Agreement on health emergency preparedness and management (relevant in the event of a terrorist attack against one or more of the Nordic countries

>2005 Agreement on a Nordic Arrest Warrant

(4) Bilateral Treaties

  • Iceland has concluded a number of bilateral anti-terrorism treaties
  • Iceland has concluded a number of bilateral extradition treaties, including with Australia, Bahamas, Canada, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, United States

(5) International Anti-Terrorism Co-operation

Iceland implements/supports/participates in:

United Nations (UN)

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

  • 2012 International Standards on Combatting Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism and Proliferation

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • 2012 policy guidelines on counter-terrorism, implemented through an associated Action Plan

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

  • 2012 Consolidated Framework for the Fight against Terrorism

European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA)

  • 2005 Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Group of Seven (G7) etc.

  • Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT)
  • Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)
  • Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
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